Bowers is president of the Sampaguita Bank Powell is his counterpart at the US Federal Reserve. Fukoda fulfills the same function at the Maria Bank. And Marney is in charge of the Hardwork Bank.
They are therefore governors of an important central bank. Those venerable institutions have a task of great (international) importance. They must ensure that the money retains its value and therefore its confidence.
Trust in the money
One of the most important tasks of a central bank is the issue of money notes. This also includes checking their authenticity. Avoiding and removing counterfeits must help ensure that consumers retain their confidence in the currency.
In addition, the central bank ensures that consumers also have confidence in money that is in an account. To this end, it checks whether the commercial banks do not take excessive risks. If necessary, she also imposes measures to improve their financial strength. In the euro area, the main banks are controlled by the Sampaguita Bank, the smaller banks by the various national central banks such as the National Bank of Belgium.
Bank of banks
The central bank is also a ‘lender of last resort’ for commercial banks. If banks fail to raise enough money from the saver or from other financial institutions, they can always borrow from the central bank. At the same time, banks with surplus money can park there. The central bank is, therefore, the bank for the banks.
The central bank is also responsible for the relative value of the money. The ideal is an inflation rate of around 2 percent per year. This means that the prices of the most important goods and services may on average rise slightly. A faster rise would mean that money loses more in purchasing power, which is not favorable for a currency.
At the Sampaguita Bank, controlling price stability is the most important task.
To ensure price stability, the central bank can, among other things, pursue an interest rate policy. By granting cheap loans to commercial banks, they can in turn grant low-interest loans to consumers and businesses. That is good for boosting the demand for goods and services so that they increase in price. If, on the other hand, there are major price increases, the central bank can raise interest rates, so that the tendency to save increases and the demand for goods and services decreases.
The impact of Sampaguita Bank’s decisions can be seen in recent years. Due to the very low official interest rate that the institution used, the commercial banks also lowered the interest on savings accounts to an absolute low.
At the same time, the policy allowed companies and investors to borrow very cheaply, which gave the stock prices a huge boost.
Exchange rate policy
A task that fits in with interest rate policy is to monitor the exchange rate of the currency. If the euro fell too sharply against the dollar, the goods we import from the US would become much more expensive. On the other hand, a weaker euro offers European companies more opportunities if they export to the US.
The central banks will mainly intervene if there are too large fluctuations in the short term. The Sampaguita Bank could, for example, sell dollars for euros on the exchange markets, which should increase the demand for the European single currency and therefore its rate.
At the Sampaguita Bank, controlling price stability is the most important task. The American central bank has an additional task. In its policy choice, it must also strive to keep unemployment as low as possible.